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There are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance.
The actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown. In the first case, Svealand was first mentioned as having one single ruler in the year 98 by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way.
However, historians usually start the line of Swedish monarchs from when Svealand and Götaland were ruled under the same king, namely Eric the Victorious Geat and his son Olof Skötkonung in the 10th century.
These events are often described as the consolidation of Sweden , although substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later.
Earlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist, can be read about in mythical kings of Sweden and semi-legendary kings of Sweden.
Many of these kings are only mentioned in various saga and blend with Norse mythology. Up until the beginning of the s, all laws in Sweden were introduced with the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends".
This title was used up until The term riksdag was used for the first time in the s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called to discuss and determine affairs affecting the country as a whole took place as early as , in the town of Arboga.
Executive power was historically shared between the King and an aristocratic Privy council until , followed by the King's autocratic rule initiated by the commoner estates of the Riksdag.
As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced in , followed by three different flavours of constitutional monarchy in , and , the latter granting several civil liberties.
Already during the first of those three periods, the 'Era of Liberty' —72 the Swedish Rikstag had developed into a very active Parliament, and this tradition continued into the nineteenth century, laying the basis for the transition towards modern democracy at the end of that century.
In Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected in national elections every four years.
In the parliament became unicameral. Legislative power was symbolically shared between the King and the Riksdag until Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag.
Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements" Folkrörelser , the most notable being trade unions, the independent Christian movement, the temperance movement, the women's movement , and the intellectual property pirate movements.
Sweden was the first country in the world to outlaw corporal punishment of children by their parents parents' right to spank their own children was first removed in , and it was explicitly prohibited by law from July .
Sweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring equality in the political system and equality in the education system. The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems: The general courts allmänna domstolar for criminal and civil cases, and general administrative courts allmänna förvaltningsdomstolar for cases relating to disputes between private persons and the authorities.
There are also a number of special courts, which will hear a narrower set of cases, as set down by legislation. While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts.
The Supreme Court of Sweden Swedish : Högsta domstolen is the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden.
Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent.
According to a victimisation survey of 1, residents in , Sweden has above-average crime rates compared to other EU countries. Sweden has high or above-average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud.
Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems. Bribe seeking is rare. A mid-November news report announced that four prisons in Sweden were closed during the year due to a significant drop in the number of inmates.
Throughout the 20th century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime.
Sweden's government pursued an independent course of nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war.
Sweden's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as the country has not been in a state of war since the end of the Swedish campaign against Norway in This has sometimes been disputed since in effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods,   especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which was vital to the German war machine.
During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defence.
Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO. Prime Minister Olof Palme made an official visit to Cuba during the s, during which he denounced Fulgencio Batista 's government and praised contemporary Cuban and Cambodian revolutionaries in a speech.
Beginning in the late s, Sweden attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations. It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World.
On 27 October , a Whiskey-class submarine U from the Soviet Union ran aground close to the naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country.
Research has never clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if an enemy committed espionage against Swedish military potential.
The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union. Following the assassination of Olof Palme and with the end of the Cold War, Sweden has adopted a more traditional foreign policy approach.
Nevertheless, the country remains active in peace keeping missions and maintains a considerable foreign aid budget. Since Sweden has been a member of the European Union, and as a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Sweden playing a more active role in European security co-operation.
The law is enforced in Sweden by several government entities. The Swedish police is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The Swedish Security Service 's responsibilities are counter-espionage , anti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution and protection of sensitive objects and people.
The Försvarsmakten Swedish Armed Forces are a government agency reporting to the Swedish Ministry of Defence and responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden.
The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peacekeeping forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war.
The armed forces are divided into Army , Air Force and Navy. The head of the armed forces is the Supreme Commander Överbefälhavaren , ÖB , the most senior commissioned officer in the country.
Up to , the King was pro forma Commander-in-Chief , but in reality it was clearly understood through the 20th century that the monarch would have no active role as a military leader.
Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted.
In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly.
Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely focusing on those otherwise most fit for service.
By law, all soldiers serving abroad must be volunteers. In , the total number of conscripts was 45, By , it was down to 15, On 1 July , Sweden ended routine conscription, switching to an all-volunteer force unless otherwise required for defence readiness.
The total forces gathered would consist of about 60, personnel. This in comparison with the s, before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,, servicemembers.
However, on 11 December , due to tensions in the Baltic area, the Swedish Government reintroduced one part of the Swedish conscription system , refresher training.
The first recruits began their training in As the law is now gender neutral, both men and women may have to serve. Sweden is the sixteenth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP gross domestic product per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens.
Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade.
Sweden is the ninth-largest arms exporter in the world. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration.
Trade unions, employers' associations and collective agreements cover a large share of the employees in Sweden.
Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation regulation by the labour market parties themselves over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.
In Sweden's income Gini coefficient was the third lowest among developed countries, at 0. However, Sweden's wealth Gini coefficient at 0. Danderyd , outside Stockholm, has Sweden's highest Gini coefficient of income inequality, at 0.
In and around Stockholm and Scania, two of the more densely populated regions of Sweden, the income Gini coefficient is between 0.
In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector ; and by international standards, a large public service sector.
Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the Swedish economy. An estimated 4. The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased efficiency.
Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted in the early s.
Sweden is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report — The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance.
Sweden maintains its own currency, the Swedish krona SEK , a result of the Swedes having rejected the euro in a referendum. According to the Economic Survey of Sweden by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mids, largely because of deregulation and quick utilisation of globalisation.
Financial deregulation in the s impacted adversely on the property market, leading to a bubble and eventually a crash in the early s. Commercial property prices fell by up to two thirds, resulting in two Swedish banks having to be taken over by the government.
In the following two decades the property sector strengthened. By , legislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding.
Sweden's energy market is largely privatised. At the same time, the use of biofuels , peat etc. Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh.
The oil crisis strengthened Sweden's commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power.
The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. New motorways are still under construction and a new motorway from Uppsala to Gävle was finished on 17 October Sweden had left-hand traffic Vänstertrafik in Swedish from approximately and continued to do so well into the 20th century.
Voters rejected right-hand traffic in , but after the Riksdag passed legislation in changeover took place on 3 September , known in Swedish as Dagen H.
The Stockholm metro is the only underground system in Sweden and serves the city of Stockholm via stations.
The rail transport market is privatised, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest operators are still owned by state.
The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves.
Most of the railways are owned and operated by Trafikverket. Most tram nets were closed in , as Sweden changed from left-side to right-side driving.
But they survived in Norrköping , Stockholm and Gothenburg, with Gothenburg tram network being the largest. A new tram line is set to open in Lund in The largest airports include Stockholm—Arlanda Airport The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden is Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, Hyllie.
Copenhagen Airport also is the largest international airport in Scandinavia and Finland. Sweden also has a number of car ferry connections to several neighbouring countries.
Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry. There are over seventy departures a day each way; during peak times, a ferry departs every fifteen minutes.
Finally, there are ferries from Strömstad near the Norwegian border to destinations around the Oslofjord in Norway. There used to be ferry services to the United Kingdom from Göteborg to destinations such as Immingham, Harwich and Newcastle, but these have been discontinued.
Sweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, both connecting Gotland with the mainland. The lines leave from Visby harbour on the island, and the ferries sail to either Oskarshamn or Nynäshamn.
Sweden has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world. During this period Sweden's economic growth was also one of the highest in the industrial world.
A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries for example the United States.
However, from the s and onwards Sweden's GDP growth fell behind other industrialised countries and the country's per capita ranking fell from 4th to 14th place in a few decades.
Sweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the s, and even trimming it back. Sweden has been relatively quick to adopt neoliberal policies, such as privatization , financialization and deregulation ,   compared to countries such as France.
Also since the mids, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD.
This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services. According to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer.
Sweden is starting to look like the USA. Sweden adopted free market agricultural policies in Since the s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls.
In June , the Riksdag voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift away from price controls. As a result, food prices fell somewhat.
However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened. Since the late s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota as percentage of GDP in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries.
Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e. In [update] , total tax revenue was State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries.
Spending on transfers is also high. In and , 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions. Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: the average worker loses 24 days due to sickness.
The unemployment rate was 7. In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe.
Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes.
Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world.
Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Serbian inventor Nikola Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.
The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground.
Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Losec , an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the s and was developed by AstraZeneca.
A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.
Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update] , according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.
As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden. Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3.
As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development. The European Spallation Source, costing some SEK 14 billion to construct,  will begin initial operations in with construction completion scheduled for The ESS will give an approximately 30 times stronger neutron beam than any of today's existing neutron source installations.
Both facilities have strong implications on material research. Every Swedish resident receives a state pension. Swedish Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions.
People who have worked in Sweden, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Swedish pension. There are several types of pensions in Sweden: national retirement, occupational and private pensions.
A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions. The total resident population of Sweden was 10,, in March The population density is The second- and third-largest cities are Gothenburg and Malmö.
Greater Gothenburg counts just over a million inhabitants and the same goes for the western part of Scania, along the Öresund.
The Öresund Region , the Danish-Swedish cross-border region around the Öresund that Malmö is part of, has a population of 4 million.
Outside of major cities, areas with notably higher population density include the agricultural part of Östergötland, the western coast, the area around Lake Mälaren and the agricultural area around Uppsala.
The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated. Between and , approximately 1. There are more than 4.
There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 3,, The official language of Sweden is Swedish,   a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian , but differing in pronunciation and orthography.
Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians.
The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. The dialects spoken in Scania , the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.
However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: Meänkieli , Sami , Romani , and Yiddish.
Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 July , when a new language law was implemented. In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.
English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as , and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late s.
Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include but are not limited to German, French and Spanish. Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers.
Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.
With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities until the late 19th century. After the Protestant Reformation in the s, a change led by Martin Luther 's Swedish associate Olaus Petri , the authority of the Roman Catholic Church was abolished and Lutheranism became widespread.
Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of , and it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy , small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen , the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.
With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism , were allowed to live and work freely in the country.
However, until it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches , and, towards the end of the century, secularism , leading many to distance themselves from church rituals.
Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of , but only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination.
The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the law on freedom of religion in In , the Church of Sweden was disestablished.
Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church after Finland did so in the Church Act of At the end of , Since , only children and adults who are christened become members.
Some , Swedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches where congregation attendance is much higher , and due to recent immigration, there are now some , Eastern Orthodox Christians and 92, Roman Catholics living in Sweden.
The first Muslim congregation was established in , when a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland.
Islam's presence in Sweden remained marginal until the s, when Sweden started to receive migrants from the Balkans and Turkey. Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population to , According to the Eurobarometer Poll , .
Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist , preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.
Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. You have to sign up with a name for which you have a valid ID and passport.
The only effect will be that you piss the casino manager off, and he may exclude players from your country from this promotion in the future. Instead of using a no deposit bonus multiple times, we suggest looking for other bonuses from different casinos , either in our list of no deposit bonuses, or on other websites, such as lcb.
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No deposit bonuses are a type of casino bonuses given to players without the need for them to deposit their own money into the casino. Casinos use them as a promotional tool to give new players an incentive to create an account and start playing.
No deposit bonuses make it possible to essentially gamble for free, but their values are generally low. Using a no deposit bonus is simple.
They are given to new players as a reward for registering. Some of them are given to players automatically, while others require entering a specific promotional code, or contacting the customer support and asking for it.
We display specific instructions for each bonus in our no deposit bonus list. You can only have one account in each casino and claim each free bonus just once, however, there is a big number of online casinos , and many of them offer no deposit bonuses to new players.
No deposit bonuses are generally offered only to players from selected countries, but our list of no deposit bonuses only displays bonuses available to players from your location.
Some casinos have more specific requirements, but you should be able to claim pretty much all bonuses in this list, unless specified otherwise.
There are two main types of no deposit bonuses — free spins and free cash. Both allow players to play real-money casino games for free, but there is an important difference.
Free spin bonuses are tied to specific slots, while free cash bonuses can be used on any game that has not been restricted for that bonus.
You can learn more in our articles describing how casino bonuses work. Free cash bonuses are a type of no deposit casino bonuses.
After a player claims them, the bonus amount is added to their player account as bonus money. The player can then play any casino games, with the exception of so-called restricted games, which are specified in the terms and conditions of each specific bonus.
Free spin bonuses are a type of no deposit casino bonuses. These bonuses grant the player the possibility to play a certain number of spins on selected slot machines.
The amount the player wins is then added to their player account as bonus money, and wagering requirements need to be met to be able to make a withdrawal.
Generally speaking, no. Most casino bonuses, including the no deposit ones, have some restricted games specified in their terms and conditions.
This means that you can play all casino games apart from those that have been restricted. Additionally, for free spin bonuses, the free spin you get from the casino can generally be used just on selected slot machine or slot machines.
Wagering requirements are a key part of all online casino bonuses. Before being allowed to make a withdrawal, you need to play with your bonus money.
Wagering requirements describe how many times you need to play through your bonus money to "unlock" it for a withdrawal.
We work on adding new no deposit bonuses into our database pretty much constantly, to make sure that Casino Guru has all new no deposit casino bonuses for our visitors to choose from.
We watch online casino websites and add new bonuses into our database as soon as we discover them. All our reviews and guides are created honestly, according to the best knowledge and judgement of the members of our independent expert team; however, they are intended for informative purposes only and should not be construed as, nor relied upon as, legal advice.
You should always make sure that you meet all regulatory requirements before playing in any selected casino. What is VPN?
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